SOURCES:

Carlos Julio Aponte, MD, board-certified rheumatologist and American Faculty of Rheumatology member.

David Borenstein, MD, medical professor of medication, George Washington College Medical Heart; associate, Arthritis and Rheumatism Associates, Washington, DC; govt editor, spinecommunity.com.

UpToDate: “Analysis and differential analysis of axial spondyloarthritis (ankylosing spondylitis and nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis) in adults,” “Pathogenesis of spondyloarthritis.”

Nationwide Well being Service (U.Okay.): “Ankylosing spondylitis.”

Spondylitis Affiliation of America: “Analysis of Ankylosing Spondylitis.”

Johns Hopkins Arthritis Heart: “Ankylosing Spondylitis.”

Present Rheumatology Reviews: “Gender Variations in Axial Spondyloarthritis: Girls Are Not So Fortunate.”

Stanford Healthcare: “How is Ankylosing Spondylitis recognized?”