WASHINGTON — President Biden, in search of to say management over the coronavirus pandemic, signed a string of govt orders and presidential directives on Thursday geared toward creating the type of centralized authority that the Trump administration had shied away from.

The orders included new requirements for masks on interstate planes, trains and buses, the creation of a nationwide testing board and necessary quarantines for worldwide vacationers arriving in america. Mr. Biden predicted that the nationwide demise toll from Covid-19 would high 500,000 subsequent month, refusing to minimize the carnage that his predecessor was loath to acknowledge.

The masks requirement for public transportation, coupled with the order Mr. Biden issued on Wednesday requiring mask-wearing in all federal services, edges the nation towards the type of complete masks mandate that has dominated debate on the state and native degree between public well being advocates and people defending what they referred to as particular person liberty.

Mr. Biden described his strategy as a “full-scale wartime effort,” however his chief medical adviser for the coronavirus, Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, made it clear how troublesome the duty can be. Showing within the White Home briefing room for the primary time since November, Dr. Fauci stated highly effective remedies utilizing manufactured antibodies, which have been used on President Donald J. Trump, weren’t efficient in opposition to extra infectious variants of the virus circulating in South Africa and Brazil, which haven’t but emerged in america.

And whereas the present vaccines nonetheless work in opposition to the brand new variants, the immune response they induce is likely to be barely diminished, he stated, including much more urgency to rapidly vaccinating individuals.

The nation, he stated, is “nonetheless in a really severe state of affairs.”

As 1000’s of Individuals die each day from Covid-19 and the specter of viral mutations looms, the pandemic poses essentially the most urgent problem of Mr. Biden’s early days in workplace. How he handles it’s going to set the tone for a way his administration is seen, Mr. Biden acknowledged.

“Historical past goes to measure whether or not we’re as much as the duty,” he stated within the White Home’s State Eating Room, with Vice President Kamala Harris and Dr. Fauci by his aspect.

The “Nationwide Technique for the Covid-19 Response and Pandemic Preparedness” outlined the type of centralized response that Mr. Trump lengthy prevented. The plan instructed federal companies to invoke the Protection Manufacturing Act if essential to increase provides; created a “pandemic testing board” to assist increase entry to testing; ordered the Occupational Security and Well being Administration to subject tips to guard employees; referred to as for new guidelines on reopening faculties and companies; and said the government would start absolutely reimbursing states for the price of utilizing the Nationwide Guard to speed up the tempo of vaccinations.

However the plan is in some respects overly optimistic and in others not formidable sufficient, some consultants say. It isn’t clear how Mr. Biden will implement the brand new quarantine requirement for international vacationers. The president has additionally promised to inject 100 million vaccines in his first 100 days. However that’s truly aiming low. Over that interval, the variety of out there doses needs to be sufficient for 200 million injections.

Past the 100-day mark is the place the issue lies. Federal well being officers and company executives agree that will probably be unattainable to extend the quick provide of vaccines earlier than April on the earliest, due to lack of producing capability.

The Trump administration had already invoked the Protection Manufacturing Act, a Korean Struggle-era legislation, to drive suppliers to prioritize orders from Pfizer, Moderna and different vaccine makers whose merchandise are nonetheless in improvement. The Trump administration had checked out all out there manufacturing capability domestically and globally, however there was little house left to safe extra manufacturing.

Mr. Biden appeared to acknowledge the issue. “The brutal reality is it’s going to take months earlier than we are able to get the vast majority of Individuals vaccinated,” he stated.

Requires unity have been already fraying a day into the brand new presidency. Mr. Biden took a shot at Mr. Trump, saying, “For the previous 12 months, we couldn’t depend on the federal authorities to behave with the urgency and focus and coordination that we wanted, and we have now seen the tragic price of that failure.”

On Capitol Hill, Consultant Steve Scalise of Louisiana, the No. 2 Home Republican, referred to as Mr. Biden’s promise of “100 million photographs” inadequate.

“Feedback made about vaccine provide and distribution by the White Home’s coronavirus czar are previous Washington spin,” Mr. Scalise stated in an announcement.

“If President Biden needs to develop a brand new plan to manage 200 million vaccines in 100 days,” he added, “congressional Republicans stand able to work with President Biden to assist additional velocity vaccine distribution.”

With the discharge of the nationwide technique, Mr. Biden tried to sign to the general public that his strategy can be much more assertive on a spread of fronts — be it bolstering the manufacture of obligatory provides or requiring mask-wearing in airports, on business planes, trains, public maritime vessels together with ferries, and on sure different modes of public transportation like intercity buses.

The Biden staff stated it had recognized 12 “quick provide shortfalls” that have been crucial to the pandemic response, together with N95 surgical masks and isolation robes, in addition to swabs, reagents and pipettes utilized in testing — deficiencies which have dogged the nation for practically a 12 months.

Jen Psaki, the White Home press secretary, instructed reporters on Wednesday night that Mr. Biden “completely stays dedicated” to invoking the Protection Manufacturing Act to bolster provides.

Senator Marco Rubio, Republican of Florida, praised Mr. Biden’s plan to make use of the act as a solution to reverse “the hollowing out of America’s manufacturing,” which “destroyed jobs, households and communities.”

Mr. Biden’s technique is organized round seven targets, together with restoring belief with the American individuals by conducting “common expert-led, science-based briefings” — one motive Dr. Fauci appeared on the White Home briefing — and advancing fairness “throughout racial, ethnic and rural/city strains.” Each are departures from Mr. Trump’s strategy.

The administration is asking Congress for $1.9 trillion for pandemic aid, and White Home officers stated they would want a lot of that cash to place their coronavirus proposal into place.

“On the asymptomatic screening aspect, we’re woefully undercapacity, so we want the cash in an effort to actually ramp up testing, which is so necessary to reopening faculties and companies,” stated Jeffrey Zients, Mr. Biden’s coronavirus response coordinator. “We’d like the testing. We’d like the cash from Congress to fund the nationwide technique that the president will lay out.”

Mr. Biden’s govt orders run the gamut. He instructed the Occupational Security and Well being Administration to “instantly launch clear steerage for employers” to guard the well being of employees and directed the Training and Well being and Human Providers Departments to subject new steerage on how one can safely reopen faculties. That was a serious level of rivalry in the course of the Trump administration, which interfered with college reopening steerage from the Facilities for Illness Management and Prevention to press directors to carry again college students.

Mr. Biden additionally ordered the Division of Well being and Human Providers, working with the C.D.C., to reassess and, if obligatory, rewrite the C.D.C.’s coronavirus testing necessities for worldwide vacationers. The C.D.C. seems to have already performed so; new guidelines to take effect on Tuesday, have been on its web site Thursday.

The brand new tips supersede these issued in December requiring vacationers from Britain to point out proof of a destructive predeparture take a look at for the coronavirus. Now, airways should confirm that each worldwide passenger age 2 or older “has attested to” both testing destructive, or has been cleared to journey by a physician or public well being official after recovering from coronavirus an infection.

The chief order to ascertain the testing board drew from President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s War Production Board. The board is accountable for ramping up testing and directing research, together with large-scale randomized trials, to establish remedies for Covid-19. He additionally created a Covid-19 fairness process drive to deal with racial disparities.

Dr. Marcella Nunez-Smith, who will lead the duty drive, instructed reporters this week that the committee would subject particular suggestions to the president, although she gave no timeline. Nor would she say whether or not vaccine suggestions would change; the present suggestions, drafted by a C.D.C. committee, don’t explicitly prioritize vaccination for individuals of shade.

However Dr. Nunez-Smith famous that they did prioritize front-line employees, lots of whom are individuals of shade.

The president has already directed the Federal Emergency Administration Company to start establishing federally supported group vaccination facilities, with the aim of getting 100 facilities in operation within the subsequent month. And he intends to arrange cell vaccination items to achieve underserved city and rural populations.

A few of Mr. Biden’s actions echo these of Mr. Trump. As an illustration, Mr. Biden will transfer to increase eligibility for vaccination to individuals 65 and older, a step the Trump administration had already taken.

“We are going to encourage states to start opening up eligibility to incorporate people over 65 and front-line important employees like educators, lecturers, first responders and grocery retailer employees,” stated Dr. Bechara Choucair, a former Chicago public well being commissioner who’s now the coronavirus vaccine coordinator. “So, extra individuals, extra locations, extra provide.”